Cross-Matching : Types, Purpose, Principle, Procedure and Interpretation

Cross Matching is a procedure performed prior to a blood transfusion to determine whether donor blood is compatible (or incompatible) with recipient blood. Compatibility is determined through matching of different blood group systems, the most important of which are the ABO and Rh system, and/or by directly testing for the presence of antibodies against a sample of donor tissues or blood.

Purpose of Cross Matching

The crossmatch is routinely used as the final step of pretransfusion compatibility testing. The purposes of compatibility testing are to detect: irregular antibodies; errors in ABO grouping, and clerical errors in patient identification and result recording. The crossmatch will detect the following:
1. Most recipient antibodies directed against antigens on the donor red blood cells.
2. Major errors in ABO grouping, labeling, and identification of donors and recipients.

Principle

Cross-matching will detect incompatibilities between the donor and recipient that will not be evident on blood typing. There are two types of cross-matches: Major cross-match and Minor cross-match.

The major crossmatch involves testing the patient’s serum with donor cells to determine whether the patient has an antibody which may cause a hemolytic transfusion reaction or decreased cell survival of donor cells. This is the most important cross-match.

The minor crossmatch involves testing the patients cells with donor plasma to determine whether there is an antibody in the donor’s plasma directed against an antigen on the patient’s cells.

Procedure

  1. Prepare donor and recipient blood samples:
    For Major crossmatch : Donor’s red cell and recipient serum or plasma
    For Minor crossmatch : Recipient red cells and donor’s serum or plasma
  2. Prepare 3 – 5% cell suspensions of red cells.
  3. Major Crossmatch:
    Label a test tube. Add two drops of the patient serum and one drop of the appropriate donor cell suspension.
  4. Minor Crossmatch:
    Label a test tube. Add two drops of the appropriate donor serum and one drop of the patient cell suspension.
  5. Mix the tubes and incubate at 37°C for about 45 minutes.
  6. Add two drops of AHG (Antihuman globulin) and mix well.
  7. Centrifuge for 1 minute at 1500 rpm
  8. Read macroscopically and microscopically and record the results

Interpretation

cross-match

The mixture of erythrocytes and serum are observed for hemolysis or microscopically for agglutination. Any evidence of hemolysis/agglutination indicates an incompatible cross-match. Negative results are taken to indicate compatibility.

Cross-Matching : Types, Purpose, Principle, Procedure and Interpretation
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33 Responses to Cross-Matching : Types, Purpose, Principle, Procedure and Interpretation

  1. siru dhakal June 22, 2015 at 8:48 am #

    thankx

  2. maimuna October 29, 2015 at 11:38 am #

    thx

  3. lobaang lanzis December 22, 2015 at 7:19 am #

    bro I need more information abt laboratories

  4. zinabu December 25, 2015 at 7:30 am #

    thank you..

  5. Moses January 26, 2016 at 11:22 pm #

    Thanks alot

  6. samwel March 18, 2016 at 9:33 am #

    Appreciated

  7. JUSTIN MGANDI NDENGE May 25, 2016 at 1:32 pm #

    good

  8. gize June 6, 2016 at 9:07 am #

    i like it

  9. gize June 6, 2016 at 9:08 am #

    good presentation

  10. charles oyoya odero July 29, 2016 at 3:00 am #

    Good,
    simple and precise

  11. Toirat bola August 14, 2016 at 9:52 pm #

    Appreciated

  12. Toirat bola August 14, 2016 at 9:53 pm #

    Thanks for the presentation

  13. Ancy August 20, 2016 at 5:45 pm #

    Thanks.thi preparation is helpful so thanks again

    • earthborn February 4, 2017 at 9:06 am #

      HI
      do you work in blood bank?

  14. IBM khan September 18, 2016 at 3:29 pm #

    also wrrte the phase of cross match its more better..thnks

  15. Mubarak Saleh Bagwai September 22, 2016 at 11:18 pm #

    A very nice presentation BMLS student
    BUK Nigeria appreciate.Thank you

  16. JOHN October 13, 2016 at 7:21 am #

    Thanks A lot… It is Quite a Lesson
    ..

  17. sneha kohli November 6, 2016 at 3:44 am #

    It is very nice presentation

  18. sneha kohli November 6, 2016 at 3:48 am #

    Thank u

  19. omkantghandat November 29, 2016 at 12:08 pm #

    thank you

  20. proper denis December 15, 2016 at 2:22 pm #

    it very nice presentation

  21. Hamdan.C.B December 20, 2016 at 4:02 pm #

    Thank you for the information

  22. akany lucy mary December 30, 2016 at 3:00 pm #

    well n precious but is it possible to us doner’s red cells against recipaint’s serum or plasma

  23. Md. Nasimul Alam January 28, 2017 at 3:35 am #

    well described

  24. ROBERT SANG February 7, 2017 at 11:36 am #

    simple and understandable

  25. TAPAN KUMAR MAHATO March 21, 2017 at 2:40 am #

    Laboratory tests are explained in a very simple language. very beneficial. thanks

  26. M. Arshad April 16, 2017 at 8:27 pm #

    It helped me a lot

  27. Philemon April 26, 2017 at 9:03 am #

    Very simple to understand..thank you

  28. Uttam Hati April 30, 2017 at 12:12 pm #

    Thank you
    Simply understand

  29. Dr. Shah Mahmood May 7, 2017 at 2:27 pm #

    Please if any new information about blood transfusion share

  30. farman June 18, 2017 at 6:04 pm #

    Thank you for this knowledge…..

  31. festus maru September 16, 2017 at 12:36 pm #

    great presentation bro. cheers. Kenyan athlete and scholarship student in medical laboratory science research.

  32. baraka nejabel January 10, 2018 at 2:14 pm #

    thanks

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