Rheumatoid Factor (RF) Test : Principle, Procedure, Interpretation and Clinical Significance

Rheumatoid Factors (RF) are autoantibodies that react with individuals own immunoglobulin. These antibodies are usually directed against the Fc fragment of the human IgG. RF have been associated with three major immunoglobulin classes: IgM, IgG, and IgA. Of these IgM and IgG are the most common. The formation of immune complex in the joint space […]

Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) Test : Principle, Procedure, Interpretation and Limitations

Syphilis is sexually transmitted (venereal) disease caused by spirochete Treponema pallidum. As the organism cannot be cultured in artificial media, the diagnosis of syphilis depends upon the correlation of clinical data either with the demonstration of microorganism in the lesion or serological testing. Serological procedures for syphilis include the following.: Treponemal tests: detect the antibodies […]

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test : Principle, Procedure, Interpretation and Limitations

Syphilis is sexually transmitted (venereal) disease caused by spirochete Treponema pallidum. As the organism cannot be cultured in artificial media, the diagnosis of syphilis depends upon the correlation of clinical data either with the demonstration of microorganism in the lesion or serological testing. Serological procedures for syphilis include the following.: Treponemal tests: detect the antibodies […]

Differences Between Transudates and Exudates

The closed cavities of the body—namely, the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities—are each lined by two membranes, visceral membrane and parietal membrane. There is a small amount of fluid between the membranes that is an ultrafiltrate of plasma. When the production and reabsorption of the ultrafiltrate is not balanced, fluid may accumulate, resulting in effusion. […]

Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) : Principle, Procedure, Indications and Interpretation

The Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) is the most sensitive test for detecting borderline diabetes mellitus. Glucose tolerance means ability of the body to utilize glucose in the circulation. It is indicated by the nature of blood glucose curve following the administration of glucose. Thus “glucose tolerance test” is a valuable diagnostic aid in the diagnosis […]

Tests Affected by Hemolyzed, Lipemic and Icteric Samples And Their Mechanism

When a substance or process falsely alters the test results, it may lead to inappropriate further tests, incorrect diagnosis and treatments with potentially unfavourable outcomes for the patient. Interferences from hemolysis, lipemia and icterus are most frequently noted which alter the assay results. Hemolysis Hemolysis is the most common reason for sample rejaction by laboratories. […]

Differences Between Amoebic Dysentery and Bacillary Dysentery

Dysentry is an infective disease of the large bowels characterized by frequent passing of blood and mucus with stool along with several abdominal cramps. Various microbial and chemical causes can result into dysentery in humans. Among the microbial aetiology are included both protozoa and bacteria. Dysentery caused by protozoa is called amoebic dysentery and dysentry […]

Benedict’s Test : Principle, Reagent Preparation, Procedure and Interpretation

Benedict’s test is used as a simple test for reducing sugars. A reducing sugar is a carbohydrate possessing either a free aldehyde or free ketone functional group as part of its molecular structure. This includes all monosaccharides (eg. glucose, fructose, galactose) and many disaccharides, including lactose and maltose. Benedict’s test is most commonly used to […]

Manual Cell Counting With Neubauer Chamber

Although a variety of automated cell counting instruments have been developed, Hemocytometer remains the most common method used for cell counting around the world. The most frequently used haemocytometer is the Neubauer (or ‘Improved Neubauer’) chamber. Other haemocytometers include the Burker, Thoma and Fuchs-Rosenthal. Using these, the particles (e.g., leucocytes, erythrocytes, thrombocytes, bacteria, fungus spores, […]

Differences Between Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

Gram Staining technique is the most important and widely used microbiological differential staining technique. It categorizes bacteria according to their Gram character (Gram positive or Gram negative). Along with their staining characteristics, Gram Positive and Gram Negative bacteria differ from each other in various aspects which are listed below : S.N. Characteristics Gram Positive Gram […]