Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

What is Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) ? BUN is a laboratory test that measures the amount of nitrogen in the blood that comes from urea. Urea is a waste product produced by the liver during protein metabolism. Protein metabolism produces ammonia, which is eventually converted to the less toxic waste product, urea. Urea is released […]

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Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

What is Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) ? GFR is the amount of blood filtered by the glomeruli per minute (mL/min). It is the best overall indicator of kidney function. It measures how effective the kidneys filter wastes from the blood. The glomeruli are tufts of blood capillaries in the kidneys that allow water, small dissolved […]

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Catalase Test

What is Catalase ? Catalase is an enzyme produced by microorganisms that live in oxygen-filled environments to protect themselves from the oxidative damage of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hydrogen peroxide is a by-product of cellular respiration in microorganisms that utilize oxygen. Catalase hydrolyzes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, which are nontoxic. Image 1: The reaction […]

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Rheumatoid Factor (RF) Test : Principle, Procedure, Interpretation and Clinical Significance

Rheumatoid Factors (RF) are autoantibodies that react with individuals own immunoglobulin. These antibodies are usually directed against the Fc fragment of the human IgG. RF have been associated with three major immunoglobulin classes: IgM, IgG, and IgA. Of these IgM and IgG are the most common. The formation of immune complex in the joint space […]

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Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) Test : Principle, Procedure, Interpretation and Limitations

Syphilis is sexually transmitted (venereal) disease caused by spirochete Treponema pallidum. As the organism cannot be cultured in artificial media, the diagnosis of syphilis depends upon the correlation of clinical data either with the demonstration of microorganism in the lesion or serological testing. Serological procedures for syphilis include the following.: Treponemal tests: detect the antibodies […]

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Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test : Principle, Procedure, Interpretation and Limitations

Syphilis is sexually transmitted (venereal) disease caused by spirochete Treponema pallidum. As the organism cannot be cultured in artificial media, the diagnosis of syphilis depends upon the correlation of clinical data either with the demonstration of microorganism in the lesion or serological testing. Serological procedures for syphilis include the following.: Treponemal tests: detect the antibodies […]

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Differences Between Transudates and Exudates

The closed cavities of the body—namely, the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities—are each lined by two membranes, visceral membrane and parietal membrane. There is a small amount of fluid between the membranes that is an ultrafiltrate of plasma. When the production and reabsorption of the ultrafiltrate is not balanced, fluid may accumulate, resulting in effusion. […]

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Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) : Principle, Procedure, Indications and Interpretation

The Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) is the most sensitive test for detecting borderline diabetes mellitus. Glucose tolerance means ability of the body to utilize glucose in the circulation. It is indicated by the nature of blood glucose curve following the administration of glucose. Thus “glucose tolerance test” is a valuable diagnostic aid in the diagnosis […]

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Tests Affected by Hemolyzed, Lipemic and Icteric Samples And Their Mechanism

When a substance or process falsely alters the test results, it may lead to inappropriate further tests, incorrect diagnosis and treatments with potentially unfavourable outcomes for the patient. Interferences from hemolysis, lipemia and icterus are most frequently noted which alter the assay results. Hemolysis Hemolysis is the most common reason for sample rejaction by laboratories. […]

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Differences Between Amoebic Dysentery and Bacillary Dysentery

Dysentry is an infective disease of the large bowels characterized by frequent passing of blood and mucus with stool along with several abdominal cramps. Various microbial and chemical causes can result into dysentery in humans. Among the microbial aetiology are included both protozoa and bacteria. Dysentery caused by protozoa is called amoebic dysentery and dysentry […]

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