Types of Crystals Found In Human Urine and Their Clinical Significance

Urine contains many dissolved substances (solutes) that the body needs to eliminate as waste chemicals. These solutes can form crystals when the concentration of dissolved substances has increased or when the pH level is increasing in either acid or base. This condition of presence of crystals in the urine is known as crystalluria. Sometimes crystals […]

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Variations in Red Blood Cell Morphology : Size, Shape, Color and Inclusion Bodies

Red blood cells are the major cellular component of blood. Mature red blood cells are biconcave discs that lack nucleus and most cell organelles such as lysomes, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. However, variable abnormal erythrocyte morphology is found in various pathological conditions: Anisocytosis: Variation in size Poikilocytosis: Variation in shape Variation in color Presence of […]

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List of Laboratory Safety Symbols and Their Meanings

We have to deal with different types of chemicals, lab equipments and potentially dangerous clinical specimens in the laboratory. So, each laboratory personnel must be aware of common laboratory hazards, accidents and safety measures to prevent them. Following symbols warn of possible dangers in the laboratory to help the lab professionals keep safe and informed. […]

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Gomori’s Silver Impregnation Staining Technique for Reticulin Fibers

Reticular fibre is the type of connective tissue composed of type III collagen secreted by reticular cells. Principle Gomorri’s technique involves the impregnation of silver for the demonstration of reticular fibres. Since the reticular fibres have low affinity for silver salts, a suitable pretreatment in order to enhance the selectivity to impregnation is required. Treatment […]

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General properties of Fungi

Fungi is any group of eukaryotic, heterotrophic microorganisms, some members of which are capable of causing infections in humans, animals and plants. General properties of fungi : All of the fungi are Eukaryotic. They posses membrane bound cell organelles including nucleus, mitochondria, golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles etc. They have glucans, mannons and chitin (polysachharides) […]

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Hematoxylin and Eosin staining : principle, procedure and interpretation

Hematoxylin and Eosin (H & E) staining is the most common staining technique in histopathology. This uses a combination of two dyes, Hematoxylin and Eosin used for demonstration of nucleus and cytoplasmic inclusions in clinical specimens. Principle Alum acts as mordant and hematoxylin containing alum stains the nucleus light blue. This turns red in presence […]

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