Differences Between Amoebic Dysentery and Bacillary Dysentery

Dysentry is an infective disease of the large bowels characterized by frequent passing of blood and mucus with stool along with several abdominal cramps. Various microbial and chemical causes can result into dysentery in humans. Among the microbial aetiology are included both protozoa and bacteria. Dysentery caused by protozoa is called amoebic dysentery and dysentry […]

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Benedict’s Test : Principle, Reagent Preparation, Procedure and Interpretation

Benedict’s test is used as a simple test for reducing sugars. A reducing sugar is a carbohydrate possessing either a free aldehyde or free ketone functional group as part of its molecular structure. This includes all monosaccharides (eg. glucose, fructose, galactose) and many disaccharides, including lactose and maltose. Benedict’s test is most commonly used to […]

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Manual Cell Counting With Neubauer Chamber

Although a variety of automated cell counting instruments have been developed, Hemocytometer remains the most common method used for cell counting around the world. The most frequently used haemocytometer is the Neubauer (or ‘Improved Neubauer’) chamber. Other haemocytometers include the Burker, Thoma and Fuchs-Rosenthal. Using these, the particles (e.g., leucocytes, erythrocytes, thrombocytes, bacteria, fungus spores, […]

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Differences Between Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

Gram Staining technique is the most important and widely used microbiological differential staining technique. It categorizes bacteria according to their Gram character (Gram positive or Gram negative). Along with their staining characteristics, Gram Positive and Gram Negative bacteria differ from each other in various aspects which are listed below : S.N. Characteristics Gram Positive Gram […]

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Papanicolaou (PAP) Staining : Introduction, Principle, Procedure and Interpretation

Papanicolaou stain (also Papanicolaou’s stain or PAP stain) is the most important stain utilized in the practice of Cytopathology. It is a polychromatic stain containing multiple dyes to differentially stain various components of the cells. This technique was developed by George Papanicolaou, the father of Cytopathology. This method is used to differentiate cells in the […]

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Glycolysis : All Steps with Diagram, Enzymes, Products, Energy Yield and Significance

Glycolysis is derived from the Greek words (glykys = sweet and lysis = splitting). It is a universal catabolic pathway in the living cells. Glycolysis can be defined as the sequence of reactions for the breakdown of Glucose (6-carbon molecule) to two molecules of pyruvic acid (3-carbon molecule) under aerobic conditions; or lactate under anaerobic […]

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Zika Virus : Structure, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Laboratory Diagnosis and Prevention

The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to Dengue, Yellow Fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus. It is responsible for mosquito-transmitted infection known as Zika fever or Zika disease. Zika Virus is commanding worldwide attention recently because researchers have found evidence that Zika may be linked to birth defects and neurological […]

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Widal Test : Principle, Procedure, Result Interpretation and Limitations

Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C cause enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) in human. Laboratory diagnosis of enteric fever includes Blood culture, Stool Culture and Serological test. Widal test is a common agglutination test employed in the serological diagnosis of enteric fever. This test was developed by Georges Ferdinand Widal in 1896 […]

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Wade-Fite Staining Technique For Mycobacterium leprae

The Wade-Fite staining technique is a less common special staining useful in Histopathology. It is the modification of Ziehl-Neelsen Staining Method to demonstrate Mycobacterium leprae in tissue sections, which is much less acid and alcohol fast than the tubercle bacilli. PRINCIPLE OF WADE-FITE STAIN Mycobacterium leprae in comparision to Mycobacterium tuberculosis are much less acid […]

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Gram Staining : Principle, Procedure, Interpretation and Animation

The Gram staining technique is the most important and widely used microbiological differential staining technique. It was developed by Dr. Christian Gram in 1884, and categorizes bacteria according to their Gram character (Gram positive or Gram negative). In addition this stain also allows determination of cell morphology, size, and arrangement. It is typically the first […]

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