CLED (Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient) Agar : Composition, Preparation, Method of Use and Characteristics of Colonies

CLED Agar is an abbreviation for Cystine Lactose Electrolyte-Deficient Agar. It is a type of differential medium recommended for diagnostic urinary bacteriology. The medium supports the growth of all urinary potential pathogens and provides distinct colony morphology. CLED Agar also supports the growth of a number of contaminants such as diphtheroids, lactobacilli, and micrococci. It […]

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High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) : Principle, Types, Instrumentation and Applications

Chromatography is a technique to separate mixtures of substances into their components on the basis of their molecular structure and molecular composition. This involves a stationary phase (a solid, or a liquid supported on a solid) and a mobile phase (a liquid or a gas). The mobile phase flows through the stationary phase and carries […]

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Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) Medium : Composition, Preparation, Method of Use and Pictures

Lowenstein Jensen Medium (LJ Medium) is a selective medium that is commonly used for the cultivation and isolation of Mycobacterium (notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis) from specimens containing mixed flora. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogenic bacterial species in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis. The medium is light green in color […]

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Cross-Matching : Types, Purpose, Principle, Procedure and Interpretation

Cross Matching is a procedure performed prior to a blood transfusion to determine whether donor blood is compatible (or incompatible) with recipient blood. Compatibility is determined through matching of different blood group systems, the most important of which are the ABO and Rh system, and/or by directly testing for the presence of antibodies against a […]

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Warthin Starry Staining Technique For Spirochetes

Warthin-stary is a silver nitrate based stain used in histopathology for the visualization of spirochetes. It is also used for Helicobacter pylori, Microsporedia etc. Principle This technique involves the argyrophilic reaction. The spirochetes are argyrophilic, which means they will absorb silver from a silver solution, but need a separate reducing agent in a solution to […]

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Alkaline Congo Red Staining Technique for Amyloid : Principle, Procedure and Interpretation

Amyloid refers to the abnormal, fibrous, extracellular proteinaceous deposits found in organs such as liver, kidneys, spleen etc. This condition of deposition of amyloid in tissues is known as Amyloidosis. Congo red histological staining technique is the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of amyloidosis. Principle Congo red dye forms nonpolar hydrogen bonds with amyloid […]

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