General properties of Fungi

Fungi is any group of eukaryotic, heterotrophic microorganisms, some members of which are capable of causing infections in humans, animals and plants. General properties of fungi : All of the fungi are Eukaryotic. They posses membrane bound cell organelles including nucleus, mitochondria, golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles etc. They have glucans, mannons and chitin (polysachharides) […]

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Hematoxylin and Eosin staining : principle, procedure and interpretation

Hematoxylin and Eosin (H & E) staining is the most common staining technique in histopathology. This uses a combination of two dyes, Hematoxylin and Eosin used for demonstration of nucleus and cytoplasmic inclusions in clinical specimens. Principle Alum acts as mordant and hematoxylin containing alum stains the nucleus light blue. This turns red in presence […]

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Complement Fixation Test : principle, procedure and interpretation

The complete fixation test (CFT) is used to detect the presence of specific antibodies in the patient’s serum. This test is based on the use of complement, a Biologically labile serum factor that causes the immune cytolysis i.e. lysis of antibody coated cells. Principle of complement fixation test It is the nature of the complement […]

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Various shapes and arrangements of Bacterial cells

Bacteria are the ubiquitous microscopic organisms that are not visible with the naked eye. Bacterial morphology (size, shape and arrangement of bacterial cells) is one of the mostly used feature for the differentiation of various bacterial species. However pleomorphic bacteria can assume several shapes, following are the three basic bacterial shapes: Coccus (plural-cocci) : spherical […]

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